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            Home | Ungulates | About Us | Glossary | Links | Search | Contact Us
            Ungulate Taxonomy
            A new perspective from Groves and Grubb (2011)

            Taxonomy (the study of classification) is a constantly-evolving field. Every year, changes to the "standard" list of ungulates (covering approximately 250 species) are proposed as new physical and genetic evidence becomes available: renaming subspecies as distinct species, separating (or uniting) genera, or naming species new to science. Most taxonomic changes are rather restricted in scale (usually reorganizing a species or genus). Rarely, however, entire orders are reviewed and revised: the ENTIRE scope of hoofed mammals receives such a treatment in Ungulate Taxonomy (Groves and Grubb, 2011).

            Ungulate Taxonomy turns the classification of hoofed mammals on its head. Whereas traditional species lists rely on the Biological Species Concept (which differentiates species on the basis of "reproductive isolation", the lack of interbreeding in nature), Groves and Grubb have applied the Phylogenetic Species Concept (which separates species on the basis of "fixed heritable differences": measureable characters that are consistently different between taxa). This change in approach has had major implication on the number of species: Groves and Grubb recognize over 450 distinct ungulates. Simultaneously, however, the recognition of subspecies has sharply declined: under the Phylogenetic Species Concept, populations that can be differentiated are listed as separate species; those which cannot be are grouped as a single taxon.

            The new approach to ungulate classification is presented below alongside the traditional species list (note that species fact sheets are accessible from the Ungulates of the World page). Such a radical departure from tradition often encounters great resistance, but the application of the Phylogenetic Species Concept to ungulate taxa is not brand-new: it is generally well-accepted for taxa like babirusas, chevrotains, and musk deer.

            Continue below to the updated taxonomy, or keep exploring this site:

            Ungulates of
             the World
            What is an
            UNGULATE?
            Explore the
            Family Tree

             

            Traditional taxonomy

              New taxonomy proposed
            by Groves and Grubb

            Family Equidae
            Equus
            Equus africanus Equus africanus (African wild ass)
            Equus ferus Equus ferus (tarpan)
            Equus przewalskii
            (Przewalski's horse)
            Equus grevyi Equus grevyi (Grevy's zebra)
            Equus hemionus Equus hemionus (Asian wild ass)
            Equus hemippus
            (Syrian wild ass)
            Equus khur
            (Indian wild ass)
            Equus kiang Equus kiang (kiang)
            Equus quagga Equus quagga (plains zebra)
            Equus zebra Equus hartmannae (Hartmann's mountain zebra)
            Equus zebra
            (Cape mountain zebra)
            Family Tapiridae
            Tapirus
            Tapirus bairdii Tapirella bairdii (Baird's tapir)
            Tapirus indicus Acrocodia indica (Asian tapir)
            Tapirus pinchaque Tapirus pinchaque (mountain tapir)
            Tapirus terrestris Tapirus terrestris (South American tapir)
            Ceratotherium
            Ceratotherium simum

            Ceratotherium simum (southern white rhinoceros)
            Ceratotherium cottoni (northern white rhinoceros)

             
            Dicerorhinus
            Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Sumatran rhinoceros)
             
            Diceros
            Diceros bicornis Diceros bicornis (black rhinoceros)
             
            Rhinoceros
            Rhinoceros sondaicus Rhinoceros sondaicus (Javan rhinoceros)
            Rhinoceros unicornis Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros)
            Order Artiodactyla
            Family Camelidae
            Camelus
            Camelus ferus Camelus ferus (wild Bactrian camel)
            Camelus dromedarius (Camelus dromedarius - domestic form)
             
            Lama
            Lama guanicoe Lama guanicoe (guanaco)
             
            Vicugna
            Vicugna vicugna Lama mensalis (Peruvian vicuna)
            Lama vicugna (Chilean vicuna)
            Family Suidae
            Babyrousa
            Babyrousa babyrussa Babyrousa babyrussa (golden babirusa)
            Babyrousa bolabatuensis Not listed
            Babyrousa celebensis Babyrousa celebensis (Sulawesi babirusa)
            Babyrousa togeanensis Babyrousa togeanensis (Togian babirusa)
             
            Hylochoerus
            Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Hylochoerus ivoriensis (western forest hog)
            Hylochoerus meinertzhageni (giant forest hog)
            Hylochoerus rimator
            (central African forest hog)
             
            Phacochoerus
            Phacochoerus aethiopicus Phacochoerus aethiopicus (desert warthog)
            Phacochoerus africanus Phacochoerus africanus (common warthog)
             
            Porcula
            Porcula salvania Porcula salvania (pygmy hog)
             
            Potamochoerus
            Potamochoerus larvatus Potamochoerus larvatus (bushpig)
            Potamochoerus porcus Potamochoerus porcus (red river hog)
             
            Sus
            Sus ahoenobarbus Sus ahoenobarbus (Palawan wild pig)
            Sus barbatus Sus barbatus (bearded pig)
            Sus bucculentus Not listed
            Sus cebifrons Sus cebifrons (Visayan wild pig)
            Sus celebensis Sus celebensis (Sulawesi warty pig)
            Sus oliveri Sus oliveri (Mindoro wild pig)
            Sus philippensis Sus philippensis (Philippine wild)
            Sus scrofa Sus chirodontus (Chinese wild pig)
            Sus cristatus
            (Indian wild pig)
            Sus davidi (Pakistan wild pig)
            Sus leucomystax (Japanese wild pig)
            Sus moupinensis (Indochinese wild pig)
            Sus scrofa (European wild pig)
            Sus taevanys (Formosan wild pig)
            Sus ussuricus
            (Manchurian wild pig)
            Sus vittatus
            (banded pig, from Indonesia)
            ?Sus meridionalis
            (from Sardinia and Corsica)
            ?Sus nigripes
            (from Kyrgyzstan)
            ?Sus riukiuanus
            (Ryukyu wild pig)
            ?Sus sibiricus
            (from Mongolia and Transbaikalia)
            Sus verrucosus Sus blouchi (Bawean warty pig)
            Sus verrucosus (Javan warty pig)
            Family Tayassuidae
            Catagonus
            Catagonus wagneri Catagonus wagneri (Chacoan peccary)
             
            Pecari
            Pecari tajacu Pecari angulatus (North American collared peccary)
            Pecari crassus
            (Central American collared peccary)
            Pecari tajacu (South American collared peccary)
             
            Tayassu
            Tayassu pecari Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary)
            Choeropsis
            Choeropsis liberiensis Choeropsis heslopi (Nigerian pygmy hippopotamus)
            Choeropsis liberiensis (western pygmy hippopotamus)
             
            Hippopotamus
            Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotamus amphibius (river hippopotamus)
             
            Suborder Ruminantia
            Family Tragulidae
            Hyemoschus
            Hyemoschus aquaticus Hyemoschus aquaticus (water chevrotain)
             
            Moschiola
            Moschiola indica Moschiola indica (Indian chevrotain)
            Moschiola kathygre Moschiola kathygre (yellow-spotted chevrotain)
            Moschiola meminna Moschiola meminna (white-spotted chevrotain)
             
            Tragulus
            Tragulus javanicus Tragulus javanicus (Javan chevrotain)
            Tragulus kanchil Tragulus kanchil (lesser Oriental chevrotain)
            Tragulus napu Tragulus napu (greater Oriental chevrotain)
            Tragulus nigricans Tragulus nigricans (Balabac chevrotain)
            Tragulus versicolor Tragulus versicolor (silver-backed chevrotain)
            Tragulus williamsoni Tragulus williamsoni (Yunnan chevrotain)
            Family Giraffidae
            Giraffa
            Giraffa camelopardalis Giraffa angolensis (Angolan giraffe)
            Giraffa antiquorum
            (Kordofan giraffe)
            Giraffa camelopardalis
            (Nubian or Rothschild's giraffe)
            Giraffa giraffa (Cape giraffe)
            Giraffa peralta
            (West African giraffe)
            Giraffa reticulata
            (reticulated giraffe)
            Giraffa thornicrofti
            (Luangwa giraffe)
            Giraffa tippelskirchi
            (Masai giraffe)
             
            Okapia
            Okapia johnstoni Okapia johnstoni (okapi)
            Antilocapra americana Antilocapra americana (pronghorn)
            Family Moschidae
            Moschus anhuiensis Moschus anhuiensis (Anhui musk deer)
            Moschus berezovskii Moschus berezovskii (forest musk deer)
            Moschus chrysogaster Moschus chrysogaster (Himalayan musk deer)
            Moschus cupreus Moschus cupreus (Kashmir musk deer)
            Moschus fuscus Moschus fuscus (black musk deer)
            Moschus leucogaster Moschus leucogaster (white-bellied musk deer)
            Moschus moschiferus Moschus moschiferus (Siberian musk deer)
            Family Cervidae
            Subfamily Capreolinae
            Alces
            Alces alces Alces alces (Eurasian elk)
            Alces americanus Alces americanus (American and east Siberian moose)
             
            Blastocerus
            Blastocerus dichotomus Blastocerus dichotomus (marsh deer)
             
            Capreolus
            Capreolus capreolus Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)
            Capreolus pygargus Capreolus pygargus (Siberian roe deer)
             
            Hippocamelus
            Hippocamelus antisensis Hippocamelus antisensis (taruka)
            Hippocamelus bisulcus Hippocamelus busulcus (huemul)
             
            Mazama
            Mazama americana
            (red brockets)
            Mazama americana (Guyana to northeast Brazil)
            Mazama gualea
            (coastal Ecuador)
            Mazama jucunda
            (southeast Brazil)
            Mazama trinitatis
            (Trinidad)
            Mazama whitelyi
            (southern Peru)
            Mazama zamora
            (southern Colombia to northeast Peru)
            Mazama zetta
            (Colombia)
            Mazama bororo Mazama bororo (bororo)
            Mazama bricenii Mazama bricenii (grey dwarf brocket)
            Mazama chunyi Mazama chunyi (dwarf brocket)
            Mazama gouazoubira
            (brown brockets)
            Mazama cita (northern Venezuela)
            Mazama gouazoubira
            (southern Brazil to Uruguay)
            Mazama murelia
            (southeast Colombia and Ecuador)
            Mazama permira
            (Isla San Jose, Panama)
            Mazama sanctaemartae
            (northern Colombia)
            Mazama superciliaris
            (central and eastern Brazil)
            Mazama tschudii
            (Peru)
            Mazama rondoni
            (no locality given)
            Mazama nana Mazama nana (lesser brocket)
            Mazama nemorivaga Mazama nemorivaga (Amazonian brown brocket)
            Mazama pandora Mazama pandora (Yucatan brown brocket)
            Mazama rufina Mazama rufina (little red brocket)
            Mazama temama Mazama temama (Central American red brocket)
             
            Odocoileus
            Odocoileus hemionus Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer)
            Odocoileus virginianus Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)
            (With a note that the genus Odocoileus
            requires significant taxonomic revision)
             
            Ozotoceros
            Ozotoceros bezoarticus Ozotoceros bezoarticus (pampas deer)
             
            Pudu
            Pudu mephistophiles Pudu mephistophiles (northern pudu)
            Pudu puda Pudu puda (southern pudu)
             
            Rangifer
            Rangifer tarandus Rangifer tarandus (reindeer, caribou)
            Subfamily Cervinae
            Axis
            Axis axis Axis axis (Chital)
            Axis calamianensis Axis calamianensis (Calamian deer)
            Axis kuhlii Axis kuhlii (Bawean deer)
            Axis porcinus Axis annamiticus (Indo-China hog deer)
            Axis porcinus
            (Indian hog deer)
             
            Cervus
            Cervus elaphus
            (red deer)

            Cervus alashanicus (Alashan stag)
            Cervus bactrianus (Bactrian stag)
            Cervus canadensis (Asian/American wapiti)
            Cervus corsicanus (Barbary red deer)
            Cervus elaphus (West European red deer)
            Cervus hanglu (Kashmir stag)
            Cervus macneilli (Sichuan shou)
            Cervus maral (Turkish red deer)
            Cervus pannoniensis (East European red deer)
            Cervus wallichii (Tibetan shou)
            Cervus xanthopygus (Manchurian wapiti)
            Cervus yarkandensis (Yarkand stag)

            Cervus nippon
            (sika deer)
            Cervus aplodontus (from northern Japan)
            Cervus hortulorum (from N. China and E. Russia)
            Cervus nippon (from southern Japan)
            Cervus pseudaxis (from Vietnam and southern China)
            Cervus pulchellus (from Tsushima Island, Japan)
            Cervus sichuanicus (from Sichuan, China)
            Cervus taiouanus (from Taiwan)
             
            Dama
            Dama dama Dama dama (common fallow deer)
            Dama mesopotamica Dama mesopotamica (Mesopotamian fallow deer)
             
            Elaphodus
            Elaphodus cephalophus Elaphodus cephalophus (tufted deer)
             
            Elaphurus
            Elaphurus davidianus Elaphurus davidianus (Pere David's deer)
             
            Muntiacus
            Muntiacus atherodes Muntiacus atherodes (Bornean yellow muntjac)
            Muntiacus crinifrons Muntiacus crinifrons (hairy-fronted muntjac)
            Muntiacus feae Muntiacus feae (Fea's muntjac)
            Muntiacus gongshanensis Muntiacus gongshanensis (Gongshan muntjac)
            Muntiacus montanus Muntiacus montanus (Sumatran muntjac)
            Muntiacus muntjak
            (red muntjacs)

            Muntiacus aureus (from northwest and central India)
            Muntiacus malabaricus (from Sri Lanka and south India)
            Muntiacus muntjak
            (from Malay Peninsula and Indonesia)
            Muntiacus nigripes (from Hainan, Vietnam and Yunnan)

            Muntiacus puhoatensis Muntiacus puhoatensis (Pu Hoat muntjac)
            Muntiacus putaoensis Muntiacus putaoensis (leaf der)
            Muntiacus reevesi Muntiacus reevesi (Chinese muntjac)
            Muntiacus rooseveltorum Muntiacus rooseveltorum (Roosevelt's muntjac)
            Muntiacus truongsonensis Muntiacus truongsonensis (Annamite muntjac)
            Muntiacus vaginalis Muntiacus vaginalis (northern red muntjac)
            Muntiacus vuquangensis Muntiacus vuquangensis (giant muntjac)
             
            Przewalskium
            Przewalskium albirostris Cervus albirostris (white-lipped deer)
             
            Rucervus
            Rucervus duvaucelii Rucervus branderi (hard-ground barasingha)
            Rucervus duvaucelii
            (western swamp deer)
            Rucervis ranjitsinhi (eastern swamp deer)
            Rucervus eldii Panolia eldii (Manipur Eld's deer)
            Panolia siamensis (eastern Eld's deer)
            Panolia thamin (thamin)
            Rucervus schomburgki Rucervus schomburgki (Schomburgk's deer)
             
            Rusa
            Rusa alfredi Cervus alfredi (Prince Alfred's deer)
            Rusa marianna Cervus barandanus (Mindoro deer)
            Cervus mariannus (Philippine deer)
            Cervus nigellus (Mindanao mountain deer)
            Rusa timorensis Cervus timorensis (rusa)
            Rusa unicolor Cervus equinus (Southeast Asian sambar)
            Cervus unicolor
            (Indian sambar)
            Subfamily Hydropotinae
            Included within subfamily Capreolinae
            Hydropotes
            Hydropotes inermis Hydropotes inermis (Chinese water deer)
            Family Bovidae
            Subfamily Aepycerotinae
            Aepyceros
            Aepyceros melampus Aepyceros melampus (common impala)
            Aepyceros petersi (black-faced impala)
            Subfamily Alcelaphinae
            Alcelaphus
            Alcelaphus buselaphus Alcelaphus buselaphus (Bubal hartebest)
            Alcelaphus caama (red hartebeest)
            Alcelaphus cokii (kongoni)
            Alcelaphus lelwel (Lelwel hartebeest)
            Alcelaphus lichtensteini (Lichtenstein's hartebeest)
            Alcelaphus major (western hartebeest)
            Alcelaphus swaynei (Swayne's haterbeest)
            Alcelaphus tora (tora hartebeest)
             
            Beatragus
            Beatragus hunteri Beatragus hunteri (hirola)
             
            Connochaetes
            Connochaetes gnou Connochaetes gnou (black wildebeest)
            Connochaetes taurinus Connochaetes albojubatus (eastern white-bearded wildebeest)
            Connochaetes johnstoni (Johnston's wildebeest)
            Connochaetes mearnsi (Serengeti white-bearded wildebeest)
            Connochaetes taurinus
            (blue wildebeest)
             
            Damaliscus
            Damaliscus lunatus Damaliscus eurus (Ruaha topi)
            Damaliscus jimela (Serengeti topi)
            Damaliscus korrigum (korrigum)
            Damaliscus lunatus (western tsessebe)
            Damaliscus selousi (Guasin-Gishu topi)
            Damaliscus superstes (Bangweule tsessebe)
            Damaliscus tiang (tiang)
            Damaliscus topi (coastal topi)
            Damaliscus ugandae (Uganda topi)
            Damaliscus pygargus Damaliscus phillipsi (blesbok)
            Damaliscus pygargus
            (bontebok)
            Subfamily Antilopinae
            Ammodorcas
            Ammodorcas clarkei Ammodorcas clarkei (dibatag)
             
            Antidorcas
            Antidorcas marsupialis

            Antidorcas angolensis (Angolan springbok)
            Antidorcas hofmeyri (Kalahari springbok)
            Antidorcas marsupialis
            (Cape springbok)

             
            Antilope
            Antilope cervicapra Antilope cervicapra (blackbuck)
             
            Dorcatragus
            Dorcatragus megalotis Dorcatragus megalotis (beira)
             
            Eudorcas
            Eudorcas albonotata Eudorcas albonotata (Mongalla gazelle)
            Eudorcas rufifrons Eudorcas rufifrons (red-fronted gazelle)
            Eudorcas tilonura (Eritrean gazelle)
            Eudorcas rufina Eudorcas rufina (red gazelle)
            Eudorcas thomsonii Eudorcas nasalis (Serengeti Thomson's gazelle)
            Eudorcas thomsoni
            (eastern Thomson's gazelle)
             
            Gazella
            Gazella arabica Gazella arabica (Farasan gazelle)
            Gazella bennettii Gazella bennettii (Deccan chinkara)
            Gazella christyi (Gujarat chinkara)
            Gazella fuscifrons (eastern jebeer)
            Gazella shikarii (western jebeer)
            Gazella salinarum (Salt Range gazelle)
            Gazella bilkis Gazella bilkis (Bilkis gazelle)
            Gazella cuvieri Gazella cuvieri (Cuvier's gazelle)
            Gazella dorcas Gazella dorcas (dorcas gazelle)
            Gazella pelzelni (Pelzeln's gazelle)
            Gazella gazella Gazella acaciae (acacia gazelle)
            Gazella cora (Arabian desert gazelle)
            Gazella dareshurii (Farrur gazelle)
            Gazella erlangeri (Arabian coastal gazelle)
            Gazella gazella (mountain gazelle)
            Gazella karamii (Bushehr gazelle)
            Gazella leptoceros Gazella leptoceros (slender-horned gazelle)
            Gazella saudiya Gazella saudiya (Saudi gazelle)
            Gazella spekei Gazella spekei (Speke's gazelle)
            Gazella subgutturosa Gazella gracilicornis (Turkmen gazelle)
            Gazella marica (Sand gazelle)
            Gazella subgutturosa (Persian gazelle)
            Gazella yarkandensis (Yarkand gazelle)
             
            Litocranius
            Litocranius walleri Litocranius sclateri (northern gerenuk)
            Litocranius walleri
            (southern gerenuk)
             
            Madoqua
            Madoqua guentheri Madoqua guentheri (Guenther's dik-dik)
            Madoqua smithii (Smith's dik-dik)
            Madoqua kirkii Madoqua cavendishi (Cavendish's dik-dik)
            Madoqua damarensis (Damara dik-dik)
            Madoqua hindei
            (Hinde's dik-dik)
            Madoqua kirkii
            (Kirk's dik-dik)
            Madoqua thomasi (Thomas's dik-dik)
            Madoqua piacentinii Madoqua piacentinii (silver dik-dik)
            Madoqua saltiana Madoqua hararensis (Harar dik-dik)
            Madoqua lawrancei (Lawrance's dik-dik)
            Madoqua phillipsi (Phillips's dik-dik)
            Madoqua saltiana (Salt's dik-dik)
            Madoqua swaynei (Swayne's dik-dik)
             
            Nanger
            Nanger dama Nanger dama (dama gazelle)
            Nanger granti Nanger granti (Grant's gazelle)
            Nanger notata (Bright's gazelle)
            Nanger petersi (Peters's gazelle)
            Nanger soemmerringii Nanger soemmerringi (Soemmerring's gazelle)
             
            Neotragus
            Neotragus batesi Neotragus batesi (dwarf antelope)
            Neotragus moschatus

            Neotragus kirchenpaueri (mountain suni)
            Neotragus livingstonianus (Livingstone's suni)
            Neotragus moschatus (coastal suni)

            Neotragus pygmaeus Neotragus pygmaeus (royal antelope)
             
            Oreotragus
            Oreotragus oreotragus Oreotragus aceratos (Noack's klipspringer)
            Oreotragus aureus (golden klipspringer)
            Oreotragus centralis (Zambian klipspringer)
            Oreotragus oreotragus (Cape klipspringer)
            Oreotragus porteousi (Nigerian klipspringer)
            Oreotragus saltatrixoides (Ethiopian klipspringer)
            Oreotragus schillingsi (Masai klipspringer)
            Oreotragus somalicus (Somali klipspringer)
            Oreotragus stevensoni (Stevenson's klipspringer)
            Oreotragus transvaalensis (Transvaal klipspringer)
            Oreotragus tyleri (Angolan klipspringer)
             
            Ourebia
            Ourebia ourebi Ourebia hastata (central oribi)
            Ourebia montana
            (Sudan oribi)
            Ourebia ourebi (southern oribi)
            Ourebia quadriscopa (western oribi)
             
            Procapra
            Procapra gutturosa Procapra gutturosa (Mongolian gazelle)
            Procapra picticaudata Procapra picticaudata (Tibetan gazelle)
            Procapra przewalskii Procapra przewalskii (Przewalski's gazelle)
             
            Raphicerus
            Raphicerus campestris Raphicerus campestris (steenbok)
            Raphicerus melanotis Raphicerus melanotis (Cape grysbok)
            Raphicerus sharpei Raphicerus colonicus (Limpopo grysbok)
            Raphicerus sharpei
            (Sharpe's grysbok)
             
            Saiga
            Saiga tatarica Saiga mongolica (Mongolian saiga)
            Saiga tartarica
            (western saiga)
            Subfamily Bovinae
            Bison
            Bison bison Bos bison (American bison)
            Bison bonasus Bos bonasus (wisent)
            Bos caucasicus (Caucasian bison)
             
            Bos
            Bos gaurus Bos gaurus (gaur)
            Bos javanicus Bos javanicus (banteng)
            Bos mutus Bos mutus (yak)
            Bos primigenius Bos primigenius (aurochs)
            Bos sauveli Bos sauveli (kouprey)
             
            Boselaphus
            Boselaphus tragocamelus Boselaphus tragolcamelus (nilgai)
             
            Bubalus
            Bubalus arnee Bubalus arnee (Asian wild buffalo)
            Bubalus depressicornis Bubalus depressicornis (lowland anoa)
            Bubalus mindorensis Bubalus mindorensis (tamaraw)
            Bubalus quarlesi Bubalus quarlesi (mountain anoa)
             
            Pseudoryx
            Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Pseudoryx nghetinhensis (saola)
             
            Syncerus
            Syncerus caffer Syncerus brachyceros (Lake Chad buffalo)
            Syncerus caffer (Cape buffalo)
            Syncerus mathewsi (Virunga buffalo)
            Syncerus nanus (forest buffalo)
             
            Tetracerus
            Tetracerus quadricornis Tetracerus quadricornis (chowsingha)
             
            Tragelaphus
            Tragelaphus angasii Nyala angasii (nyala)
            Tragelaphus buxtoni Tragelaphus buxtoni (mountain nyala)
            Tragelaphus derbianus Taurotragus derbianus (giant eland)
            Tragelaphus eurycerus Tragelaphus euryceros (bongo)
            Tragelaphus imberbis Ammelaphus australis (southern lesser kudu)
            Ammelaphus imberbis
            (northern lesser kudu)
            Tragelaphus oryx Taurotragus oryx (common eland)
            Tragelaphus scriptus

            Tragelaphus scriptus (western bushbuck)
            Tragelaphus phaleratus (Central African bushbuck)
            Tragelaphus bor (Nile bushbuck)
            Tragelaphus meneliki (Menelik's bushbuck)
            Tragelaphus decula (Lake Tana bushbuck)
            Tragelaphus fasciatus
            (eastern coastal bushbuck)
            Tragelaphus ornatus (Chobe bushbuck)
            Tragelaphus sylvaticus (Cape bushbuck)

            Tragelaphus spekii Tragelaphus gratus (western sitatunga)
            Tragelaphus larkenii (Nile sitatunga)
            Tragelaphus selousi (Zambezi sitatunga)
            Tragelaphus spekii (Lake Victoria sitatunga)
            Tragelaphus sylvestris (Nkosi Island sitatunga)
            ?Tragelaphus ugallae (from Tanzania)
            Tragelaphus strepsiceros Strepsiceros chora (northern kudu)
            Strepsiceros cottoni (western kudu)
            Strepsiceros strepsiceros (Cape kudu)
            Strepsiceros zambesiensis (Zambezi kudu)
            Subfamily Caprinae
            Ammotragus
            Ammotragus lervia Ammotragus lervia (aoudad)
             
            Arabitragus
            Arabitragus jayakari Arabitragus jayakari (Arabian tahr)
             
            Budorcas
            Budorcas taxicolor Budorcas bedfordi (golden takin)
            Budorcas taxicolor (Mishmi takin)
            Budorcas tibetanus (Sichuan takin)
            Budorcas whitei (Bhutan takin)
             
            Capra
            Capra aegagrus Capra aegagrus (wild goat)
            Capra caucasica Capra caucasica (west Caucasian tur)
            Capra cylindricornis Capra cylindricornis (east Caucasian tur)
            Capra falconeri Capra falconeri (Markhor)
            Capra ibex Capra ibex (Alpine ibex)
            Capra nubiana Capra nubiana (Nubian ibex)
            Capra pyrenaica Capra pyrenaica (Spanish ibex)
            Capra sibirica Capra sibirica (Siberian ibex)
            Capra walie Capra walie (Walia ibex)
             
            Capricornis
            Capricornis crispus Capricornis crispus (Japanese serow)
            Capricornis milneedwardsii Capricornis maritimus (Indochinese serow)
            Capricornis milneedwardsi
            (white-maned serow)
            Capricornis rubidus Capricornis rubidus (Burmese red serow)
            Capricornis sumatraensis Capricornis sumatraensis (Sumatran serow)
            Capricornis swinhoei Capricornis swinhoii (Formosan serow)
            Capricornis thar Capricornis thar (Himalayan serow)
             
            Hemitragus
            Hemitragus jemlahicus Hemitragus jemlahicus (Himalayan tahr)
             
            Naemorhedus
            Naemorhedus baileyi Nemorhaedus baileyi (red goral)
            Naemorhedus caudatus Nemorhaedus caudatus (long-tailed goral)
            Naemorhedus goral Nemorhaedus bedfordi (Himalayan gray goral)
            Nemorhaedus goral
            (Himalayan brown goral)
            Naemorhedus griseus Nemorhaedus evansi (Burmese goral)
            Nemorhaedus griseus
            (Chinese goral)
             
            Nilgiritragus
            Nilgiritragus hylocrius Nilgiritragus hylocrius (Nilgiri tahr)
             
            Oreamnos
            Oreamnos americanus Oreamnos americanus (Rocky Mountain goat)
             
            Ovibos
            Ovibos moschatus Ovibos moschatus (Muskox)
             
            Ovis
            Ovis ammon

            Ovis ammon (Altai argali)
            Ovis collium (Kazakhstan argali)
            Ovis darwini (Gobi argali)
            Ovis hodgsoni (Tibetan argali)
            Ovis jubata (Shansi argali)
            Ovis karelini (Tianshan argali)
            Ovis nigrimontana (Karatau argali)
            Ovis polii (Marco Polo sheep)

            Ovis canadensis Ovis canadensis (bighorn sheep)
            Ovis dalli Ovis dalli (Dall's sheep)
            Ovis nivicola Ovis nivicola (snow sheep)
            Ovis orientalis

            Ovis arabica (Oman wild sheep)
            Ovis bochariensis (Bukhara urial)
            Ovis cycloceros (Afghan urial)
            Ovis gmelini (Armenian sheep)
            Ovis isphaganica (Isfahan sheep)
            Ovis laristanica (Laristan sheep)
            Ovis punjabensis (Punjab urial)
            Ovis severtzovi (Kyzylkum sheep)
            Ovis vignei (Ladakh urial)

             
            Pantholops
            Pantholops hodgsonii Pantholops hodgsonii (chiru)
             
            Pseudois
            Pseudois nayaur Pseudois nayaur (bharal)
            Pseudois schaeferi Pseudois schaeferi (dwarf blue sheep)
             
            Rupicapra
            Rupicapra pyrenaica Rupicapra ornata (Abruzzi chamois)
            Rupicapra parva (Cantabrian chamois)
            Rupicapra pyrenaica
            (Pyrenean chamois)
            Rupicapra rupicapra Rupicapra asiatica (Asia Minor chamois)
            Rupicapra carpatica (Carpathian chamois)
            Rupicapra rupicapra (Alpine chamois)
            ?Rupicapra balcanica (Balkan chamois)
            Subfamily Cephalophinae
            Cephalophus
            Cephalophus adersi Cephalophus adersi (Aders's duiker)
            Cephalophus callipygus Cephalophus callipygus (Peters's duiker)
            Cephalophus dorsalis Cephalophus castaneus (eastern bay duiker)
            Cephalophus dorsalis
            (western bay duiker)
            Cephalophus harveyi Cephalophus harveyi (Harvey's duiker)
            Cephalophus jentinki Cephalophus jentinki (Jentink's duiker)
            Cephalophus leucogaster Cephalophus arrhenii (Uele white-bellied duiker)
            Cephalophus leucogaster
            (western white-bellied duiker)
            Cephalophus natalensis Cephalophus natalensis (Natal red duiker)
            Cephalophus niger Cephalophus niger (black duiker)
            Cephalophus nigrifrons Cephalophus fosteri (Mount Elgon duiker)
            Cephalophus hooki (Mount Kenya duiker)
            Cephalophus hypoxanthus (Itombwe duiker)
            Cephalophus nigrifrons (black-fronted duiker)
            Cephalophus rubidus (Rwenzori duiker)
            Cephalophus ogilbyi

            Cephalophus brookei (Brooke's duiker)
            Cephalophus crusalbum (white-legged duiker)
            Cephalophus ogilbyi (Ogilby's duiker)

            Cephalophus rufilatus Cephalophus rufilatus (red-flanked duiker)
            Cephalophus silvicultor Cephalophus curticeps (eastern yellow-backed duiker)
            Cephalophus silvicultor
            (western yellow-backed duiker)
            Cephalophus spadix Cephalophus spadix (Abbott's duiker)
            Cephalophus weynsi Cephalophus johnstoni (Johnston's duiker)
            Cephalophus lestradei (Lestrade's duiker)
            Cephalophus weynsi (Weyns's duiker)
            Cephalophus zebra Cephalophus zebra (zebra duiker)
             
            Philantomba
            Philantomba maxwellii Philantomba maxwelli (Maxwell's duiker)
            Philantomba walteri (Verheyen's duiker)
            Philantomba monticola Philantomba aequatorialis (eastern blue duiker)
            Philantomba anchietae (Angolan blue duiker)
            Philantomba bicolor (Zimbabwe blue duiker)
            Philantomba congicus (western blue duiker)
            Philantomba defriesi (Zambian blue duiker)
            Philantomba hecki (Malawi blue duiker)
            Philantomba lugens (mountain blue duiker)
            Philantomba melanorheus (Bioko blue duiker)
            Philantomba monticola (Cape blue duiker)
            Philantomba simpsoni (Simpson's blue duiker)
             
            Sylvicapra
            Sylvicapra grimmia Sylvicapra coronatus (crowned duiker)
            Sylvicapra grimmia (bush duiker)
            Sylvicapra pallidior (Sahel duiker)
            Subfamily Hippotraginae
            Addax
            Addax nasomaculatus Addax nasomaculatus (addax)
             
            Hippotragus
            Hippotragus equinus Hippotragus equinus (roan antelope)
            Hippotragus leucophaeus Hippotragus leucophaeus (blaubok)
            Hippotragus niger Hippotragus niger (southern sable antelope)
            Hippotragus roosevelti (Roosevelt's sable antelope)
             
            Oryx
            Oryx beisa Oryx beisa (beisa oryx)
            Oryx callotis
            (fringe-eared oryx)
            Oryx gallarum
            (Galla oryx)
            Oryx dammah Oryx dammah (scimitar-horned oryx)
            Oryx gazella Oryx gazella (gemsbok)
            Oryx leucoryx Oryx leucoryx (Arabian oryx)
            Subfamily Reduncinae
            Kobus
            Kobus ellipsiprymnus Kobus defassa (defassa waterbuck)
            Kobus ellipsiprymnus
            (ellipsen waterbuck)
            Kobus kob

            Kobus kob (Buffon's kob)
            Kobus leucotis
            (white-eared kob)
            Kobus loderi
            (Loder's kob)
            Kobus thomasi
            (Uganda kob)

            Kobus leche Kobus anselli (Upemba lechwe)
            Kobus kafuensis
            (Kafue Flats lechwe)
            Kobus leche
            (Red lechwe)
            Kobus robertsi
            (Roberts' lechwe)
            Kobus smithemani (black lechwe)
            Kobus megaceros Kobus megaceros (Nile lechwe)
            Kobus vardonii Kobus vardoni (puku)
             
            Pelea
            Pelea capreolus Pelea capreolus (rhebok)
             
            Redunca
            Redunca arundinum Redunca arundinum (southern reedbuck)
            Redunca occidentalis
            (Malawi reedbuck)
            Redunca fulvorufula Redunca adamauae (Adamawa reedbuck)
            Redunca chanleri (Chanler's mountain reedbuck)
            Redunca fulvorufula (Southern mountain reedbuck)
            Redunca redunca Redunca bohor (bohor reedbuck)
            Redunca cottoni
            (Sudan reedbuck)
            Redunca nigeriensis
            (Nigerian reedbuck)
            Redunca redunca (western reedbuck)
            Literature Cited

            Groves, C., and P. Grubb. 2011. Ungulate Taxonomy. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

            IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Available online at the IUCN Redlist website.

            Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder [editors]. 2005.  Mammal Species of the World (3rd Edition).  Johns Hopkins University Press, 2,142 pp. Available online at the Mammal Species of the World website.

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